The Brain Anatomy

Brain is an intelligent, creative, emotional governor of our actions and  interpreter of our knowledge. It is protected within the thick outer covering of our skull and many more inner layers that protects it from sudden shock waves or hard bumps.  It assembles the messages through our five senses i.e touch, hear, sight, taste and smell. It controls our physical actions and functions, thoughts and feelings. As important as it is, Brain is a part of our Central Nervous System (CNS) which can be called the main decision making mechanism of our body. It is divided in supremely three parts: Forebrain, Midbrain and Hindbrain. Each of them plays a crucial role in maintaining our body, executing the necessary functions and sustaining our life.

The brain!

Forebrain

Cerebrum

Cerebrum constitutes the largest portion of our brain and is also known as cerebral cortex. It is a sight for learning, reasoning, intelligence, personality and memory. It is responsible for controlling our thoughts, sensations and actions. It is further divided into four sections called lobes.

  • Frontal Robe

It is associated with our brain’s ability to organise, reason, speak and solve problems. It is responsible for attention, concentration and a sense of self awareness.

  • Parietal Lobe

It controls our complex behaviour and integrates sensory information provided by the five senses. It is responsible for spacial orientaion, visuospacial processing, differentiation between left and right, knowledge of numbers and body positioning.

  • Occipital Lobe

It is mainly responsible for visual prception such as lighting, colors and movements in our surrounding

  • Temporal Lobe

It is responsible for auditory perceptions and stimuli. It comprehends spoken language and visual memory.

Midbrain

The Midbrain  is the smallest region of our brain and located centrally. It controls reflex movements of the head and neck in response to visual and auditory stimuli. Some parts of midbrain also accounts for memory and emotions. The following are the parts of midbrain:

  • Limbic System

It is referred to as emotional brain and often called ‘childish brain’.

  • Thalamus

It’s primary function is to relay the sensory information and knowledge to cerebrum from every part of the brain.

  • Hypothalamus

It regulated endocrine activities and functioning of pituitary gland. It also controls somatic functions such as sleeping, apt appetit and maintains body function.

  • Amygdala

It contains receptor sites that are incriminating in fear, sexual feelings and anger.

  • Hippocampus

The primary role of Hippocampus is to organise and store memories. It also plays an importatant role of connecting senses (visual and auditory) to emotions.

  • Pituitary Gland

Pituitary gland primarily connects the two main important systems of human body that are nervous system and endocrine system. It is located at the centre of our brain and is responsible for releasing and regulating many hormones.

 

Hindbrain

Hindbrain consists of three parts:

  • Cerebellum

The cerebellum helps in maintaing posture and balance of body, enabling us to make precise and accurate movements. It coordinates our body movements such as walking, dancing, etc.

  • Pons

It is responsible for our sensation of hearing, feeling in face, sleep cycles and depth and frequency of our breathing. It also controls some reflexes and respiration.

  • Medulla

Medulla controls various involuntary actions  like heart beat, breathing, blood pressue and swallowing. It is also responsible for controlling reflexes such as coughing, sneezing, secretion of saliva and vomiting.

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