The human brain is arguably the most complex of all biological systems. The mature brain is composed of more than 100 billion neurons. It has the most complex connectons and structure. Even after extensive researches and in deapth knowledge of brain, it continues to be a mystery and fascination of all. If brain itself is so complex, the process of its development and formation is bound be just the same. A short description of the development of human brain throughout the years in life is explained as follows:
As a foetus
Human brain starts to develop in the third week after conceiving of a foetus. Both gene expression and environmental input are essential for normal brain development, and disruption of either can fundamentally alter neural outcomes. By the end of the embryonic period, which last till eight weeks after conceiving, the nervous system and rudimentary structures of brain are ready. Neuron production in humans begins on embryonic day 42. As they are produced, neurons migrate to different brain areas where they begin to make connections with other neurons establishing neural networks.
Till the age of 6
The brain increases in size by four-fold during the preschool period, reaching approximately 90% of adult volume by age 6. Level of brain connectivity and development highly depends on the early environment and experiences. Development of voluntary movement, reasoning, perception, frontal lobes activity, development of emotions, attachments, planning, working memory, and perception are all developing processes from birth till the age of 6. A sense of self is developing and life experiences shape the emotional wellbeing.
Till age of 22
Until the age of 22, the neural connections or ‘grey’ matter is still pruning, wiring of brain still in progress, the fatty tissues surrounding neurons or ‘white’ matter increase and assist with speeding up electrical impulses and stabilize connections. The prefrontal cortex is the last to mature, that involves the control of impulses and decision-making.
From age of 27 to 65
Brain matures and reaches its peak at the age of 27. Between the age of 22 to 27 which means for 5 years, brain is the most developed and efficient it can ever be in its life. Afterwards, it’s a downhill pattern. Last to mature and the first to go are the brain functionality. Memory for recalling starts to decline, processing speed slows and working memory is storing less information. Slowly and steadily, brain reduces its power to remember and interpret adequately.
After the age of 65
After the age of 65, brain starts to lose its proper functioning and capability. Neurons are distorted in the areas related to memory and learning, making it difficult to get a hold of new things or remember old things.